Scott Kelly is a former military fighter pilot and test pilot, an engineer, a retired astronaut, and a retired U.S. Navy captain. A veteran of four space flights, Kelly commanded the International Space Station (ISS) on three expeditions and was a member of the yearlong mission to the ISS.
Kelly's first spaceflight was as pilot of Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-103 in December 1999. The second spaceflight was as mission commander of STS-118, a 12-day Space Shuttle mission to the ISS in August 2007. In his third spaceflight, he served as a crewmember on Expedition 25/26 on the ISS. He arrived at the ISS aboard Soyuz TMA-01M on 9 October 2010, and served as a flight engineer until he took over command of the station on 25 November 2010 at the start of Expedition 26.In November 2012, Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Korniyenko were selected for a year-long mission to the ISS. Their year in space began on March 27, 2015, and they remained on the station for Expeditions 43, 44, 45, and 46. In October 2015, Kelly set the record for the total accumulated number of days spent in space, the single longest space mission by an American astronaut. Kelly's scientific goal during the one-year mission was to better understand how the human body adapts to lengthy periods in space.
Scott Kelly retired from NASA in 2016 and was appointed, in the same year, the United Nations Champion for Space by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), to assist in raising awareness of UNOOSA outreach and activities